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July 9, 2020

Hal Brown blog

 Website slow, click here  This is a blog with my own opinion plus new stories that piqued my interest. A few of them are from websites you are unlikely to read. I hope they interest you too.... Now covering stories about Hong Kong and China.

July 25, 2020 - I am no longer mirroring my blog on my personal Facebook page by posting the same stories there. 

July 24, 2020

I find myself reading more of The Washington Post than The NY Times these days. Perhaps this is one of the reasons: 

New York Times' sexist double standard: AOC coverage reeks of misogyny

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez gave a riveting House speech Thursday. To Times reporters, it was a branding exercise

Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez makes some people very uncomfortable, and apparently that includes some editors and reporters at the New York Times.
So rather than report on Ocasio-Cortez's riveting, viral speech on the House floor on Thursday aas a signal moment in the fight against abusive sexism, Times congressional reporters Luke Broadwater and Catie Edmondson filed a story full of sexist double standards and embraced the framing of her critics by casting her as a rule-breaker trying to "amplify her brand."
Washington Post columnist Helaine Olen tweeted: "I'm not into NYT bashing — newspaper work is hard and reporters and editors make bad calls! — but referring to @AOC masterful speech as a 'brand' exercise is a major, major miss."

David Remnick's appreciation of Ocasio-Cortez's remarks serves as an antidote of sorts to the Times story. Writing for the New Yorker, he gave her credit for her achievements:
Ocasio-Cortez has been at the forefront of major issues, including climate change, immigration, campaign-finance reform, and income inequality. Her ability to skewer a balky witness in committee hearings has proved as uncanny as it is entertaining.
In a speech that "should be studied for its measured cadence, its artful construction, and its refusal of ugliness," Ocasio-Cortez "defended not only herself; she defended principle and countless women," Remnick wrote.
And he clearly identified the real norm-killer:
The politics of our moment are dominated by a bully of miserable character, a President who has failed to contain a pandemic through sheer indifference, who has fabricated a reƫlection campaign based on bigotry and the deliberate inflammation of division. His language is abusive, his attitude toward women disdainful.
In the Washington Post, Monica Hesse wrote that "On the subject of misogyny at least, her Thursday address was the speech of a lifetime."

Ocasio-Cortez is an extraordinary political figure: a smart, brave, charismatic young Latina woman who refuses to be intimidated by anything or anyone.
Her very existence in Congress, along with her insistent, progressive agenda, her bold words and actions, and the ease with which she navigates pop culture and social media, have turned her into an icon — a singular walking, talking challenge to the conservative white male power structure.

As such, she tends to bring out the worst in some people.

On Thursday, she brought out the worst in the New York Times.

This is how HuffPost put it: AOC Gave The Most Important Feminist Speech In A Generation

Bad news from the federal court in Portland: Judge denies restraining order against feds in Portland

This seemed to be good news. It wasn't: Judge Bans Federal Officers From Targeting Media In Portland Amid Ongoing Protests

A federal judge issued a temporary restraining order, saying: “When wrongdoing is underway, officials have great incentive to blindfold the eyes” of the press.

July 23, 2020

My Daily Kos story has nothing to do with politics today.

This is really really FUBAR times 10: 'My own government': Federal officer shoots Portland professor in head, subjects mayor to tear gas

In what Portland Mayor Ted Wheeler dubbed both an “egregious overreaction” and an "urban warfare" tactic, federal authorities subjected the mayor to tear gas Wednesday night in their indiscriminate use of violence and scare tactics. “I’m not going to lie—it stings; it’s hard to breathe,” Wheeler told a New York Times journalist. “And I can tell you with 100 percent honesty, I saw nothing which provoked this response. It's nasty stuff. I'm not afraid, but I am pissed off.
Wheeler, who has bumped heads with protesters critical of the city police’s crowd control tactics, said “a lot of these people hate my guts” but they were united in wanting federal authorities gone. He had said in a Twitter thread earlier Wednesday that he “was made aware of concerns within the community that federal agents may be authorized to use live ammunition on demonstrators this evening.”
“Given the deployment of federal agents to other American cities and the clear escalation of the federal government, this information was alarming,” Wheeler added. “I have spoken with the U.S. Attorney of Oregon, Billy Williams, who assures me that the federal government has no plans to use live ammunition on Portlanders tonight, and that such an order would be unlawful. Nevertheless, I am sharing this information publicly out of an abundance of caution. If you plan to demonstrate tonight, please be safe.”
The mayor has hardly been the only person subjected to the federal government’s violence. When a federal law enforcement officer hit a Portland history professor in the head with an impact munition, she said she refused to let it stop her or to divert attention from Black people killed every day because of police brutality. Maureen Healy, chairwoman of the history department at Lewis & Clark College, marched Monday with other protesters singing songs and chants and listing the names of Black people killed at the hands of police, just as she has done most nights since June, she said in a statement released on Twitter Wednesday.
Standing in a public place amid about a thousand other protesters, Healy said she wasn't damaging property or going beyond the realm of a peaceful protest. She had even taken part in a moment of silence in front of a George Floyd mural. "So why did federal troops shoot me in the head Monday night?" Healy asked. She ventured a guess—“to extinguish these peaceful protests.”
The educator said it didn’t dawn on her until after she suffered the effects of tear gas and was in an emergency room that her government did this to her. "My own government,” she said. “I was not shot by a random person in the street. A federal law enforcement officer pulled a trigger that sent an impact munition into my head."

Here in Portland we have the strange case of our mayor: First Booed By Protesters, Then Tear Gassed By Federal Agents the top story on HuffPost.

The View’s Meghan McCain lashes out at Mary Trump over tell-all book: ‘People say you’re just trying to make money’

July 22, 2020


Sean Illing

If there’s an ethical philosophy in The Plague, it can be summed up in one word: attentiveness. What do you think that word means to Camus?

Robert Zaretsky

It’s not the “attention” we find in human resource offices, or in banks, or in department stores, where people are pretending to listen to you but all the while thinking about how they need to respond or what they already have decided they’re going to say in response. What Camus means is what another French philosopher, Simone Weil, called “decreation,” which is undoing yourself in order to make room for other selves in your life. And this is what Camus’s characters in The Plague understand. This is what motivates Rieux and Tarrou — they attend to their patients, to the sick, in ways that are wholly admirable.

Sean Illing

Something worth highlighting, especially as we’re confronting our own pandemic, is that the plague, for Camus, dramatizes a permanent truth of our condition, which is that we’re all vulnerable to loss and suffering. No one escapes it. We’re all victims in that sense, and Camus thought we should always take the side of the victim. And if we were able to do that, then maybe we could build a real human community, or what Camus called an “earthly kingdom.”

Robert Zaretsky 

You’ve said it so well, Sean. It would be an extraordinary thing. I think of that scene in The Plague when Rieux and Tarrou are in Rieux’s apartment, and it’s at that moment that Tarrou had shared his story with Rieux about his experience with his father at the court, and what he has done ever since in order not to be an agent of the plague. And it’s at this moment that the plague is really at its peak. Both men are just exhausted.
But after Tarrou tells his story, Rieux says, “Let’s take a moment off for friendship.” And they go for a swim in the Bay of Algiers, in the Mediterranean. And it’s silent. They don’t say a word to one another. And at a certain moment while they’re swimming, their strokes begin to synchronize. They mesh. And it’s one of the most extraordinary beautiful images in the novel. And perhaps by holding on to this image of just trying to synchronize our lives with one another in ways that speak to our shared humanity, our shared dangers, our shared aspirations, that would be a wonderful thing.
I realize that may sound lame, but this is what I’m reduced to right now.

July 21, 2020

Trump Seen At Event Without Mask Hours After Saying It’s ‘Patriotic’ To Wear One

White House officials must be ‘tearing their hair out’ over Trump’s Epstein cohort Ghislaine Maxwell remarks: CNN’s Acosta

 Watch what Trump said here 

Now read these tweets.

From The Lincoln Project

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Responds After GOP Congressman Accosts Her On Capitol Steps

Rep. Ted Yoho reportedly called the congresswoman a “f**king bitch” after a confrontation.


Gail: I give thanks every day that when the country got stuck with a bigoted, dictatorially inclined president, he turned out to be so inept on the job.
Bret: Right. It’s like he bought a copy of “Mussolini for Dummies” but never made it past the first chapter.
Gail: By the way, I believe you’ve acquired a new family dog, right? Does it give you any more insight into the fact that Trump also can’t stand pets?
Bret: Yes! An adorable 10 week-old goldendoodle named Lucky, which was also the name of my childhood dog in Mexico City. Our whole family is besotted. I didn’t know Trump hated pets, but I’m not surprised. He generally hates people, too, most recently a certain doctor named Anthony S. Fauci. Do you think the good doctor will be fired?
Gail: Well, I certainly hope not. But Trump is clearly unhappy with both his opinions and his national celebrity. So you’d expect Fauci to go, particularly when there’s another infectious disease expert, Dr. Deborah Birx, who actually seems to support the president’s it’s-all-working-out worldview. But Trump’s perfectly capable of just continuing to bounce around randomly.

Yale psychiatrist Bandy Lee reveals the 3 disturbing conditions that are allowing Trump’s psychosis to infect his followers

My version of a photo of McConnell meeting with Trump with short pants and happy socks:

July 20, 2020

Missouri Governor Says School Kids Will Catch COVID-19 And ‘Get Over It’

My comment: šŸ˜„The best line he said is that keeping kids out of school “will create more problems than the virus will ever think about creating.” A thinking virus? Sounds like he's believed too many science fiction tropes.

July 19, 2020

trump's america - 

What a trump landslide loss will do to the gop CNN

By Sibaji Bandyopadhyay, an Indian author, critic, theorist and performer, who writes in Bengali and English. His interests lie in the fields of Bengali and English literature, literary theory, philosophy, feminism, sexuality, cinema and psychoanalysis.


The resurgence of narcissism and sadomasochism
In his 1914 essay ‘Narcissism: An Introduction’, Sigmund Freud had contended:
  • Those who seek themselves as a love-object, display a type-object which is patently narcissistic.
  • The narcissist in the grip of megalomania, reflexively, almost mechanically, over-estimates his power of wishes and mental acts.
  • Nevertheless, the faith in the omnipotence of his own thoughts and grandiose premises the megalomaniac steadfastly holds on to is only an instance of secondary narcissism.
  • In truth, it is inevitably superimposed upon a form of narcissism which is primary by the virtue of being universal.
It is therefore quite feasible to imagine that at certain historical conjunctures there may arise situations in which the vacuous ego of one megalomaniac succeeds in superimposing itself on many an ego by the conduit of primary narcissism. And indeed, the ‘art’ involved in the deal offered by Donald Trump is squarely predicated upon what may be termed transactional narcissism. In this scenario, to use the formula of Freud, people accept Trump as their “high ego-ideal” and “exchange [their] narcissism for homage to [it]”. In short, it is not a tale of isolated, solitary self-love but that of interdependence and reciprocity: rising to the level of being a fully-exposed syndrome, Trump’s Other-abjuring narcissistic persona both feeds on and flares up the mostly latent similar sort of narcissism of the mostly forgotten masses.

But, this is not all.

Whoever courts an ego-ideal, secretly pines for the tantalizing interplay of pleasure and pain. By transferring primary narcissism to the safe-keeping of some supposed strongman, more often than not, s/he automatically takes on the role of being passively active in some theatre of sadomasochism.

Click to enlarge: Who are you going to believe, Donald vs. Mary Trump

July 18, 2020

July 17, 2020


New Lincoln Project ad

I added the image above

Below: In The Guardian:
“He’s on a trajectory of a downward slope,” Scaramucci said, “and he’s doing something – because I know the son of a bitch well – he’s doing something that I find fascinating. He’s subconsciously self-detonating.”

“He’s doing things every single day that is literally forcibly unravelling his political career, and that is the hidden secret, the underbelly of a narcissist,” Scaramucci added. “They have a very full blown self-destructive streak in their personalities. He’s got his hand on the self detonator now.”

Can you get infected with COVID-19 twice? Experts say possibility is 'certainly real'

John Bacon, USA TODAY

Hopes are dimming that "herd immunity" can help stamp out the tenacious global pandemic amid growing concerns that people can be reinfected with COVID-19. 
Experts agree that claims of recurring infections require more study since we are only months into the health crisis and evidence has been anecdotal. But if it's proven that recovered patients can "catch" the virus a second time, it would affect their own immunity while also complicating efforts to obtain the Holy Grail of current medical research: effective vaccines.
Recovery from the disease provides antibodies to fight off the infection. The shelf life of those antibodies, however, may be insufficient to protect a patient for very long or promote long-term immunity across populations.
"The possibility of reinfection is certainly real," Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, told USA TODAY. "And one that I am seeing repeatedly on the front lines."

It is still on the top the page several hours later
If you are on my email list and want the text of this story let me know and I will send it to you.

Do you think you know a lot about Abraham Lincoln, the president Trump compares himself to? Did you know he was really really smart and had a scientific mind?

July 16, 2020

This key detail from Maddow’s interview with Mary Trump could have ‘enormous significance’

MSNBC’s “The Rachel Maddow Show” on Thursday broadcast an interview with Mary Trump, the president’s niece who just published a blockbuster tell-all book.
“By the time that The Times story came out, did you know what they had?” Maddow asked. “Did you know that — sort of the explosiveness of the alleged misdeeds that they were going to uncover thanks to what you gave them?”

“I had no idea,” she replied.

“It wasn’t just that people in my family did these things that they shouldn’t have done, but these were my aunts and uncles who also happened to be my trustees and clearly I didn’t benefit from the role that they were supposed to play in protecting my financial interests when I was younger,” she explained.

Asha Rangappa, a former FBI special agent who is a CNN analyst, said that part of the interview could have “enormous significance.”

I had to look this up: "Karen" has come to signify entitled white women who cause disturbances, sometimes racially charged ones. It's in Wikipedia.

Karen is a pejorative term used in the United States and other English-speaking countries for a woman perceived to be entitled or demanding beyond the scope of what is considered appropriate or necessary. A common stereotype is that of a racist white woman who uses her privilege to demand her own way at the expense of others. Depictions also include demanding to "speak to the manager". As of 2020, the term was increasingly being used as a general-purpose term of disapproval for middle-aged white women.

Chicago Mayor attacks Kayleigh McEnany as a ‘Karen’

Kayleigh McEnany defends Trump’s poor polling: ‘His historic COVID response speaks for itself’

My version of Wind-Up Barbie

 Quote: "Trump, whose only two personality traits are narcissism and being a dick, loves to find someone else to blame for his failures." Amanda Marcotte, Salon

Trump team launches a sweeping loyalty test to shore up its defenses 

Quote of the day from Max Boot: 

So far, Biden has stayed safely out of the line of fire in keeping with Napoleon’s advice to his marshals: “When your enemy is executing a false movement, never interrupt him.” At this rate, Biden’s most effective campaign strategy might be to never come out of his basement, leaving Trump to rage in frustration and futility.


The problem, from Trump’s perspective, is that Biden isn’t an African American like Barack Obama, a woman like Hillary Clinton or a socialist like Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.). He’s a boring, moderate white guy who has been around forever without ever being demonized in the way that Clinton was for decades. Even his base voters will have trouble seeing Uncle Joe as someone who is plotting to promote a “far-left fascism” and to “end America” — the accusations that Trump hurled at the left on July 3. As Biden himself would say in his charming throwback way: “C’mon man!”

Trump’s Mental Unhealth – Chapter 2: How Trump Fails Every Criterion for Mental Capacity, by Bandy Lee, MD

July 15, 2020

In an upset to Big Pharma, the most promising coronavirus vaccine comes from the public sector

This video, Fuck 2020, went viral:

Drunk Uncle Trump Is Melting Down, Live on Television

Trump's Rose Garden address was a scatological break with reality

Once upon a time, in a place called America, there was a lovely spot known as the White House Rose Garden. And the leaders of this mystical land came to this scenic location when they wanted to deliver particularly important or visionary statements to the people. And everyone was happy.

Okay, that last sentence may not be strictly true. However, everyone was a good deal happier than before Donald Trump chose to make the Rose Garden his go-to location for pumping out lies about a devastating pandemic, defending white nationalism, and just crapping all over regulations against campaigning on federal property. In all honesty, it’s not even clear what Trump came to the Rose Garden to talk about on Tuesday afternoon, because he spent so much time lashing out at Biden that any other theme was lost. That smell? That’s not roses. It’s the mingled scents of raw bullshit and pure panic.

If there was a major theme to Trump’s appearance on Tuesday it was this: Look how disconnected I am from facts. It’s not really fair to say that Trump’s latest Rose Garden address represented a psychotic break with reality. It was more a … scatological break. Trump simply could not stop making sh#t up. Then more. Then even more. When, after about 45 minutes, Trump finally stopped with the statement “We could go on for days,” it seemed like he already had been going on for days. 

July 14, 2020

Mary Trump book review quote: 

Toward the book’s coda, Mary Trump’s narrative reveals itself to be an alleged crime drama as much as it is a memoir and psychological analysis of the world’s most powerful man. The first-time author holds a doctorate from the Derner Institute of Advance Psychological Studies, which she puts to frequent use starting with the book’s prologue.

In her professional estimation, diagnosing President Trump with “malignant narcissism” or suffering from “narcissistic personality disorder” does not go far enough.
“A case could be made that he also meets the criteria for antisocial personality disorder, which in its most severe form is generally considered sociopathy but also can refer to chronic criminality, arrogance, and disregard for the rights of others,” she writes.

Roger Stone shouldn’t put away his orange jumpsuit just yet

Covid-Cruz: Infection affection

Jon Francis and Ted Cruz had a get out the vote event today in Granbury. Purportedly 250-300 people at the event. Based on this picture, not any visible masks and not really any social distancing, all at an indoor event.

But wait, there's more:

American Airlines 'investigating' Ted Cruz after maskless flight images go viral


As President of the World Uighur Congress and a Uighur myself, the last three to four years have been incredibly tragic and disheartening. 

The Uighur community is suffering profoundly, this is a pain that will never leave us. We have had to watch in almost slow motion as the Uighur people have been forced to endure a series of worsening atrocities at the hands of the Chinese government. 

Over the last three years, it has become clear that the Chinese government is trying to erase us, our ethnic identity and us as people. We are being subjected to genocide, but have received little more than words of concern, until recently. We have not even received that from most Muslim-majority countries, who have hyprocritcally chosen to support China's genocidal policies against Uighurs. 

As the very existence of the Uighur people is at stake, we ask who will hold China accountable and stop the Uighur genocide?

July 13, 2020

Trump puts so many of us into an uncharacteristically mean place. People I talk to are ashamed to admit these thoughts, they tell me they feel guilty... that they wish Trump would contract Covid-19. He doesn't even know how to wear a mask. I hope he wasn't contagious when he visited Walter Reed where I don't think he visited any Covid-19 patients. 

July 12, 2020

‘The rats are leaving the sinking ship’: Internet stunned after Lindsey Graham agrees to let Mueller testify on Trump

With an added touch to the illustration by Hal Brown
EXCERPT: In two studies, the researchers surveyed 850 U.S. residents between March 13 and March 25, 2020 — the first two weeks following the U.S. presidential declaration of a national emergency about the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to collecting demographic information and assessing social distancing compliance, the surveys included assessments of working memory, personality, mood, and fluid intelligence.
Zhang and his colleagues found that those with better working memory capacity were more likely to indicate that they had followed social distancing guidelines, such as not shaking hands and avoiding social gatherings.
“Our findings reveal a novel cognitive root of social distancing compliance during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic,” Zhang said.
The researchers also found that higher levels of fluid intelligence and agreeableness were associated with greater social distancing compliance. But the link between working memory and social distancing held even after controlling for these factors and others.
“The decision of whether or not to follow social distancing guidelines is a difficult one, especially when there is a conflict between the societal benefits (e.g., prevent staining public health resources) and personal costs (e.g., lost in social connection and financial challenges). This decision critically relies on our mental capacity in retaining multiple pieces of potentially conflicting information in our head, which is referred to as working memory capacity,” Zhang told PsyPost.

“Realizing this cognitive bottleneck, the bottom line is that we should not rely on people’s habitual following of a norm because social distancing is not yet adequately established in U.S. society. Policy makers should develop strategies to aid people’s decision by making information or debriefing materials succinct, concise, and brief.”

July 11, 2020

Campaign manager Parscale mocked with tweets for ‘America First’ message on coronavirus — as the US leads in fatalities

From Russian state media: Not shy about a clickbait title here's how Sputnik reviews Mary Trump's book.

Undercover in Trumplandia: How I found the limits of patriotism when I infiltrated the Tulsa MAGA rally

by Danny Sjursen, a TomDispatch regular, is a retired U.S. Army major and former history instructor at West Point. He served tours in Iraq and Afghanistan, and now lives in Lawrence, Kansas. He has written a memoir of the Iraq War, Ghost Riders of Baghdad: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Myth of the Surge. His latest book, Patriotic Dissent: America in the Age of Endless War, will be published in September. 

July 10, 2020

Story above

Excerpt: Trump hasn’t been able to get any wedges stuck in between the wings of the Biden coalition because he’s too busy hammering them into his own eyeballs. Like a squirrel that can jump safely from branch to branch 30 feet off the ground, but idles in a street because it cannot comprehend the speed and size of an automobile, the president is losing voters because he cannot comprehend that taking a binary social media position about an inflammatory cable-news topic, as effective as it has been for him in the past, is not the solution to every political problem. He is, for now, MODERATELY NON-INVINCIBLE.

What Mary Trump’s book and the ‘Trump v. Vance’ case have in common, by George Conway

EXCERPT: The case, ironically, came about partly because of Mary Trump. As her book explains, she became a principal confidential source for a New York Times exposĆ© that described how the Trump Organization, over many years, may have dodged taxes. Those allegations became part of the predicate for a New York state criminal investigation that the president sued to curtail. Trump argued that, because he’s president, not even his accountants had to respond to the district attorney’s subpoena.

The Supreme Court would have none of it. Its decision rejected Trump’s narcissistic vision of the presidency. “In our judicial system,” Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. wrote for the court, “the public has a right to every man’s evidence.” And that includes a president’s evidence. Just as other presidents have “uniformly” given evidence when required of them, the court held, so, too will Donald Trump and his businesses and accountants. Indeed, the court confirmed, “state grand juries are free to investigate a sitting president with an eye toward charging him after the completion of his term.” On these points, at least, the court was unanimous. As Justice Brett M. Kavanaugh’s concurring opinion aptly put, “no one is above the law.”

For the country, by adhering to that principle, the court vindicated the rule of law. But for Donald Trump personally, his niece’s book and the Supreme Court’s decision may someday be remembered as the beginning of the end of his institutional protections. And not just in a legal sense. Much of the power of the presidency comes from the perception of it, and that perception is now waning as the president bleeds out in the polls. As that power ebbs, more Mary Trumps and John Boltons will tell their stories, or give their evidence to investigators, with ever less fear.

As Mary Trump puts it in her book, “the walls” of her uncle’s “very expensive and well-guarded padded cell are starting to disintegrate.” Come January, they should be gone for good.

July 9, 2020

Click above to enlarge

Twitter has a spell check:

Trump may want to "move on" from the virus, but alas for him, the virus doesn't care what you think. It's going to stick around and keep doing it's thing, especially when confronted with spineless policy-makers beholden to a president who can't sustain the attention needed to mount a real, long-term strategy to control or defeat the virus. 
A similar phenomenon is playing out with the Black Lives Matter protests. In this case, the story has been sustained by the concentrated efforts of activists across the country, who have kept the protests up, day after day for weeks now, making it impossible for Trump to move on, even if he wanted to. 
The wild part about this, however, is that Trump doesn't even seem to want to move on. The same deep psychological damage that has allowed him to hijack the news cycle with his tantrums and impulsive tweets has also made it impossible for him to pivot away from the BLM protests. He's both a racist and a cable news addict, and as such, he can't help but keep on reacting to the protests and — being a glutton for attention — doing everything in his power to thrust himself center stage.  

Democrats increasingly worry Trump will push out dangerous COVID-19 vaccine as ‘October surprise’


 Not even waiting for Chapter 1 to depict her uncle Donald as a sociopath whose family has grown cynical of his public illusions, the clinical psychologist Mary Trump prefaces her memoir with a scene from the 2016 campaign trail.
“Does anybody even believe the bullshit that he’s a self-made man?” Mary Trump recalls asking one of the future president’s sisters. “What has he even accomplished on his own?”
The reply from Maryanne Barry, a former federal judge, is cutting: “‘Well,’ Maryanne said, as dry as the Sahara, ‘he has had five bankruptcies.’” 
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